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6. Animal Transport

  • Why do organisms with a small surface area to volume ratio need a transport system?
  • What is a single circulatory system and double circulatory system? You should be able to give examples of each.
  • What is the external and internal structure of the mammalian heart?
  • Why is the left ventricle thicker than the right?
  • Can you describe the cardiac cycle, with reference to the action of the valves?
  • How is the cardiac cycle controlled using the SAN, the AVN and Purkyne tissue?
  • What does a normal and an abnormal ECG look like?
  • What is the difference between an open circulatory system and closed circulatory system?
  • What is the structure and function of arteries, veins and capillaries?
  • What is the difference between blood, tissue fluid and lymph?
  • How is tissue fluid formed from plasma?
  • How does haemoglobin carry oxygen and carbon dioxide?
  • Can you describe and explain the dissociation curves of adult oxyhaemoglobin at different carbon dioxide levels (i.e. the Bohr effect)?
  • What is significant about the different affinities of fetal haemoglobin and adult haemoglobin for oxygen?
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