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5. Exchange

  • Why do organisms with a small surface area to volume ratio need an exchange surface?
  • What are the features of an efficient exchange surface?
  • How is the mammalian lung adapted for efficient gas exchange?
  • How is cartilage, ciliated epithelium, goblet cells, smooth muscle and elastic fibres in the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli of the mammalian gaseous exchange system distributed?
  • What are the functions of cartilage, cilia, goblet cells, smooth muscle and elastic fibres in the mammalian gaseous exchange system?
  • Can you explain the mechanism of breathing?
  • What do the terms tidal volume and vital capacity mean?
  • How can a spirometer can be used to measure vital capacity, tidal volume, breathing rate and oxygen uptake?
  • Can you analyse and interpret data from a spirometer?
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